Twahirwa  yakoze umushinga ugamije kubaka itangazamakuru ry’umwuga bihereye ku ishuri
Uburezi

Twahirwa  yakoze umushinga ugamije kubaka itangazamakuru ry’umwuga bihereye ku ishuri

Imvaho Nshya

May 27, 2022

Twahirwa Jean Paul Aimable usanzwe ari umukozi w’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Itangazamuru “RBA” akaba yarabaye n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza zitandukanye yakoze umushinga ugamije kubaka itangazamakuru ry’umwuga bihereye mu mashuri.

Muri uyu mushinga agaragaza ko kugira ngo bigerweho hakenewe ubufatanye bw’abanyamakuru n’amashuri yigisha  itangazamukuru  mu Rwanda.

Mu kiganiro Twahirwa yagiranye n’Imvaho Nshya (I.N) yasobanuye byinshi kuri uyu mushinga.

I.N: Twahirwa ni muntu ki?

Twahirwa: Murakoze, nitwa Twahirwa Jean Paul Aimable maze imyaka irenga  12 mu itangazamakuru aho nkorera RBA.

I.N: Hari umushinga wakoze  wifuza ko uzafasha itangazamakuru ryo mu Rwanda kongera ubunyamwuga, ubusanzwe  ko ukora mu itangazamakuru ibyo gukora imishinga byaje gute?

Twahirwa: Murakoze, munyemerere ntangire nsobanura imvano y’umushinga, nkomereze no kuri icyo kibazo.

Nubwo nkorera RBA byumwihariko kuri Televiziyo y’u Rwanda, nanigishaga muri Kaminuza mu mashami y’itangazamakuru atandukanye hano mu Rwanda, nanize kandi  icyiciro cya gatatu cya Kaminuza “Masters” muri Business Administration, ishami ryo gucunga imishinga.

Ubwo burambe rero bw’akazi nagiye nkora, uburambe buturutse mu kwigisha, ubumenyi bwo gucunga imishinga, nifuje kubikomatanya ngo ntange umusanzu wanjye ku itangazamakuru, mu mashuri  makuru yo mu Rwanda ndetse no mu cyiciro cy’ikoranabuhanga kuko umushinga ubasha gukora kuri izo mpande zose.

I.N:  Uwo mushinga uteye ute ?

Twahirwa : Nawise “Empowering Journalism Schools with Professional Reporting and Production Skills”. Muri  makeya ni ukongerera imbaraga amashuri yigisha itangazamakuru mu Rwanda mu nshingano zayo kugira ngo, tunoze, dutegure, umunyamakuru mwiza w’umunyamwuga.

Mu rwego rwo kubigeraho rero umushinga  ufite intego zitandukanye. Mu gihe twigaga itangazamakuru mu cyiciro cya 2 cya Kaminuza yaba bakuru bacu nagerageje kubaza, yaba ndetse n’abiga ubu, Kaminuza zo mu Rwanda zigisha itangazamakuru zihuriye ku kibazo cy’ibikoresho byo mu itangazamakuru bituma abanyeshuri bashyira mu ngiro ibyo biga.

Usanga ibikoresho ari bike cyane  ugereranije n’umubare w’ababikoresha,usanga kandi na bike bihari bitabasha gucungwa neza, hamwe uhasanga ububiko bunini bw’ibyangiritse, ibitagikoreshwa  hanyuma ibihari  bike ugasanga  bitajyanye n’igihe bitewe n’aho ikoranabuhanga rigeze ubu.

I.N:  Ubona ikibitera ari iki? ni uburangare bw’izo Kaminuza cyangwa ni inzego zishinzwe igenzura ?

Twahirwa: Ntabwo navuga ko ari izo mpamvu uvuze, reka tubanze twibaze ngo ni bande baza kwiga itangazamakuru muri aya mashuri.

Igisubizo ni abana b’Abanyarwanda n’ubwo ubu harimo n’Abanyamahanga ariko umubare ni muto, uwo mwana uturuka mu muryango nyarwanda turabizi ko igihugu cyacu kiri mu nzira y’amajyambere, sinzi niba hari iyindi mibare iratangazwa ariko muri 2012,  2% by’abari batuye u Rwanda ngira ngo miliyoni 12, ni bo bari barize Kaminuza n’amashuri makuru, kandi si uko bari babyanze ahanini biragaruka ku bushobozi bw’umubyeyi w’uriya mwana.

Uwo mubare muto rero nibura wabashije kwishyura ibisabwa muri Kaminuza, buriya bisobanuye ko icyo giciro cy’uburezi kizamuwe, hari umubare munini watakara kubera ubushobozi budahagije. Imiterere y’imyigishirize y’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, amafaranga y’ishuri, yakabaye azamurwa  kugira ngo ibisabwa byose bibashe gukorwa, ariko nazamurwa  barabura abaryiga.

Wakwibaza uti kuki numva ko abanyeshuri biga itangazamakuru bakabaye bishyura amafaranga y’ishuri arenze ay’abandi? , igisubizo ni uko, umunyeshuri wiga itangazamakuru akeneye ibikoresho  by’ikoranabuhanga bimufasha gutara amakuru, kuyatunganya no kuyasakaza kugira ngo asohoke muri aya mashuri ari umunyamakuru wuzuye kandi watojwe, binamworohere kuza guhangana ku isoko ry’umurimo haba mu Rwanda, mu karere n’ahandi hose. Uretse n’imiterere y’itangazamakuru ni n’umurongo wa Leta wo kwigisha amasomo ngiro ku bana b’u Rwanda.

Ibi bikoresho rero bishingiye ku ikoranabuhanga mu itangazamakuru birahenze cyane ku isoko, ikoranabuhanga ririhuta cyane hano mu Rwanda riri ku muvuduko uri hejuru, usanga igikoresho cyari ku isoko ibyacyo byarangiye mu gihe runaka, kandi byaraguzwe akayabo. Bimwe bikagusaba kubizamurira ubushobozi ngo bibashe gukorana n’ibindi, ibindi bigatakazwa burundu, iyo ikoranabuhanga ryihuta rivumburwamo ibishya umunsi ku munsi kandi ubona bifite akamaro, biza koroshya akazi cyangwa gukosora amakosa yari mu byagiye biza mbere.

Bityo rero izi Kaminuza zikomora ubushobozi ku mafaranga yishyurirwa abanyeshuri biga itangazamakuru ntashobora guhangana n’iki kibazo ngo zigitsinde.  HEC nubwo yategeka aya mashuri kugira ibyo bikoresho, bisobanuye ko hazamurwa amafaranga y’ ishuri, kubera ubushobozi budahagije, wazisanga abanyeshuri bahitamo kujya kwiga andi mashami adahenze gutyo, tukazabura abiga itangazamakuru kandi muzi akamaro rigirira sosiyete muri rusange. Kabone nubwo Leta yasonera (Exoneration) ibi bikoresho, byasaba kuzamura  amafaranga y’ishuri kandi n’ubundi imicungire  yabyo iragoye kubera imiterere y’aya mashuri.

Reka mbahe urugero rwa bimwe mu bikoresho ikoranabuhanga ryatesheje agaciro, kuko ubwabyo bitihagije bikeneye ibindi kugira ngo igikorwa cyose irangire.

Hari  “Video Camera” bitaga VHS na “Cassette” zazo zajyaga muri “Magnetos”, muribuka “Appareil photo” zasabaga kujyanwa guhanaguza amafoto, za “Betacamera” cyangwa  “Nagra”  byakoreshwaga mu itangazamakuru, ibyo bikoresho byose ndakeka ko ubibitse wese yaba aya mashuri, ibitangazamakuru cyangwa abantu ku giti cyabo ubu bimeze nko kubika amateka, nyamara byari bihenze.

Nakomoje kibazo cy’ibikoresho bihari bishobora kuba bitanacungwa neza, aha twafata nk’urugero rwa Kaminuza ifite abanyeshuri biga ku manywa, abiga ku mugoroba n’abiga muri Weekend. Uzasanga wenda umukozi umwe cyangwa se ari n’umwarimu ari we ushinzwe gucunga  ibyo bikoresho. Wibuke ko umukozi akeneye ikiruhuko, afite amasaha y’akazi, afite uburenganzira kuri konji, niba ari umwarimu arategura, yigishe, akosore, byumvikane ko niba ari nacyo ashinzwe, atazanabasha no gukurikirana umunyeshuri cyangwa buri tsinda bagiye gutara inkuru, hari abari bugaruke igikoresho cyangiritse, hari uduce runaka twatakaye rimwe na rimwe uwo munyeshuri nanaza icyo kibazo cyamubayeho, ntazanabyerekane mu rwego rwo gutinya ibihano.

Uyu mushinga uratanga inyunganizi kuri iki kibazo

Ubu mu Rwanda, harabarurwa Kaminuza enye zigisha itangazamakuru, hashobora no kuvuka izindi ariko uyu mushinga wibanze kuri UR, MKU ishami ry’u Rwanda, East African University na ICK. Abanyeshuri biga iri shami biga imyaka itatu.

Uyu mushinga  urifuza kugura ibikoresho by’ikoranabuhanga mu itangazamakuru  byakoreshwa n’aya mashuri ane mu bihe bitandukanye.

Aya mashuri yigisha itangazamakuru rikoresha amajwi n’amashusho (TV), amajwi (Radio) n’ itangazamakuru ryandika haba ari kuri murandasi cyangwa ibyo ku mpapuro binyuzwa mu macapiro (Online and Print Media).

Aba banyeshuri bari gusoza umwaka wa gatatu ari na wo wa nyuma bazakora umwitozo wa nyuma uhuriza hamwe ubumenyi bahawe muri iriya myaka itatu, ni ukuvuga imyitozo itatu kuri buri shuri cyangwa se tuyite amasomo ya nyuma ya (TV, Radio, Online and Print Media).

Urugero, dufate isomo rimwe muri ayo atatu  wenda nka  TV, umushinga urifuza kuzahuza abanyamakuru bo mu Rwanda b’abahanga ndetse n’abandi bakora mu itangazamakuru nka “Camera Operators”,  “Photographers” , “Graphic Designers”, “Audio Operators”, bazaza kongerera ubumenyi bahawe na ririya shuri bagakorana bya hafi na bariya banyeshuri mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bibiri, umunsi wanyuma w’ibyo byumweru, abanyeshuri  bakazereka buri wese umusaruro w’ibyo bakoze kuko bizaba biri “live” haba kuri za “Social Media” nka  “Youtube”, “website” yazashyirwaho cyangwa se ba nyiri ibitangazamakuru batwemereye gufasha aba banyeshuri  bakaduha umwanya bagafata amasaha runaka nta guhagarara, bakerekana gahunda  bateguye zizaba zirimo amakuru, “filme documentaire”, ibiganiro bitandukanye mbese gahunda nziza yateguwe kandi bayifashijwemo n’abanyamwuga ndetse n’ubuyobozi bwa Kaminuza.

Kuri radio naho ni uko, ku binyamakuru byandika ya “website” ihuriweho na bariya banyeshuri ba ziriya Kaminuza eshatu hakaba ariho hashyirwa inkuru banditse, “Print Media”, umushinga ukazafasha kujyana ikinyamakuru no mu icapiro. Umunyeshuri nyuma azajya ajya gusaba akazi  yerekana icyo yakoze gifatika, iyo “Live” iwabo bamubone babone ko nubwo hari ibyo bigomwe  ariko umusaruro ari mwiza, bizanakurura n’abandi bana b’Abanyarwanda gukunda itangazamakuru.

Muri uyu mushinga harimo  guhuza abanyeshuri mu itangazamakuru n’abakora mu itangazamakuru. Si ukubahuza gusa ahubwo ni no gukorana, iri tangazamakuru ryacu dufitemo abahanga, bafite n’ubunararibonye mu kazi. Ni iby’agaciro katagereranywa byonyine kubahuza bakamenyana, noneho bakanakorana nta shiti bizamuzamurira ubumenyi, kandi abashe no gutinyuka umwuga, binongereho ko izo contact zizanabafasha kwinjira mu mwuga, uyu munsi cyangwa twese mbere wasangaga winjira mu itangazamakuru wimenya wowe ubwawe, udafite ukwereka uko ibi n’ibi bikorwa, ibidakorwa…

Ikindi ni ikijyanye n’ibikoresho bidafatwa neza. Aha niba umushinga  ufitanye amasezerano na “Camera Operator”, ni umukozi w’umushinga  azahabwa ibikoresho, ajyane na wa munyeshuri gushaka amakuru  azaha ubumenyi wa munyeshuri kuri ibyo bikoresho, ariko anamuhe abe ari we wifatira amashusho ye, gusa amube hafi mu rwego rwo gufata neza bya bikoresho. Aho nta mpungenge zihari z’ibungabungwa ry’ibikoresho.

 Gutanga umusanzu mu gutuma habaho imikoranire y’izi kaminuza kuko zikora bimwe.

Hari ikintu gikomeye twigiye kuri Leta yacu cyo gukorana cyane cyane abahuje ibyo bakora, izi Kaminuza intego zazo ni ukwigisha itangazamakuru, gusa usanga bamwe bakora ukwabo, abandi ukwabo, ba banyeshuri b’abanyamakuru bakazisanga mu mwuga umwe ku wundi  yemwe batanaziranye.

Gusa  ubufatanye bwaramba ni ubwishyiriweho na ba nyiri ayo mashuri, kurusha ko hari uva ku ruhande akaza kubafasha gukorana. Iyo ari bo ubwabo bashyira ibintu ku meza, bakareba inyungu zabo ko zidahungabana, bakumvikana n’umurongo mugari w’imikoranire.

Uruhare ruto kuri uyu mushinga ni uko kwa gukurikirana za gahunda , muri buri Kaminuza harimo kumenyana, ubuyobozi bw’ ayo mashuri buzategura ingengabihe zayo masomo babanje kuvugana kugira ngo adahuza igihe kuko ibikoresho ari bimwe.

Gahunda za “Live” na zo ubwazo zizatuma habaho kurushanwa, kandi ntiwarushanwa   n’uwo utazi, nihabaho  kurushanwa muri ayo mashuri, bisobanuye kuzamura ireme ry’uburezi, iyo platform bazakoresha bose ya “website”  izatuma habaho imikoranire hagati y’abo banyeshuri urumva ko ubuyobozi bwabo butasigara.

Hari na gahunda yateguwe muri uyu mushinga  yo kuzahuza bariya barimu bigisha amasomo ngiro  mbere yo kujya gutangira ya masomo, bazahuzwa hagamijwe kwerekana no kumvikana byimbitse ku ruhare rwa buri wese mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’uyu mushinga, buriya nubwo ari abarimu ba Kaminuza, ntabwo bari mu mwanya mwiza wo kumenya neza ibikoresho bigezweho mu itangazamakuru ugereranije n’abari mu mwuga w’itangazamakuru.

Ibyo byose nubwo bitari ku murongo neza, ariko ni intangiriro nziza yo kubyazwa umusaruro, hakomerezaho imikorere muri ibyo bigo  ishingiye  ku mahitamo yabo.

Ikindi niba umunsi wa  gahunda ya “Live Radio” muri UR haba ubuyozi bw’umushinga , ICK , East African University, MKU hagomba gutegurwa ibikorwa remezo bituma  abanyeshuri n’abarimu baza gukurikira iyo gahunda  ndetse na “Live TV Program” iri gukorwa na rimwe muri aya mashuri.

Uwo ari we wese ubishatse uwo murongo kuko uzaba ufunguye yakurikirana bya biganiro, ya makuru ya bariya banyeshuri ku mbuga nkoranyambaga cyangwa ku rubuga “Website” haba ababyeyi, abanyamakuru n’abandi bose aho hari hose babishaka bazabikurikira ariko bano bakiri mu ishuri bo ni umwihariko.  Aho rero ninaho haba guhiga bati tuzabarushe, twa dushya, kwa kwitanga, bikavukira aho.

I.N: Uyu mushinga ko wagira ngo urashaka gufata inshingano za  Kaminuza?

Twahirwa:  Ntabwo ariko bikwiriye kumvikana, kuko ni ukuzuzanya kugira ngo utange umusanzu wo kubaka itangazamakuru rirambye kandi ry’umwuga mu Rwanda duhereye hasi.

Itangazamakuru iyo rikozwe  nabi  bigira ingaruka mbi kuri sosiyete  rikoreramo, urugero rurafatika ni nk’itangazamakuru ryabibye urwango ryagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi 1994.  Ariko icyo gihe nta shuri  ry’itangazamakuru ryabaga mu Rwanda abenshi yari amahugurwa hanze y’ igihugu nayo yabonwaga n’abakoreraga Leta.

Ikindi wenda umuntu yakongeraho ni uko ubu hari gutegurwa amavugurura mu itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, imwe mu ngingo ishobora kugaragaramo ni uko abatarize itangazamakuru bize ibindi bashobora kwemererwa  gukora itangazamakuru.

Uyu mushinga rero  wagira uruhare mu guhugura aba bantu hagategurwa imfashanyigisho irimo  ibyo kwiga bandika “Theories” ndetse no kubishyira mu ngiro.

I.N:  Umushinga nk’uyu kugira ngo ushyirwe mu bikorwa bisaba abaterankunga, barabonetse? ni bande?

Twahirwa:  Murakoze  iyo wubaka ikintu wifuza ko kiramba ni byiza kugishyira mu byiciro. Uyu mushinga wabanje kwandikwa, urakosorwa, usobanurirwa abayobozi na bamwe mu barimu b’izi Kaminuza zigisha itangazamakuru, ubu icyiciro kigezweho ni iki cyo gusobanurira bagenzi banjye bakora mu itangazamakuru nk’abafatanyabikorwa kimwe na bariya bahagarariye ariya mashami mu mashuri makuru.

Ni ngombwa kubanza kumvikanisha igitekerezo, kugira ngo babigire ibyabo, ni igikorwa gikwiye kumvikana nk’igikorwa kinini kandi cyagerwaho ari uko habayeho ubufatanye.

Igice cya  nyuma rero ni icyo gushaka amikoro  kandi ngendeye ku mikorere y’igihugu cyacu, iyo ibintu biteguye neza, humvikana neza ikibazo kije gukemurwa, humvikana akamaro kabyo, icyizere kiba gihari ko amikoro yaboneka.

I.N:  Umushinga  uzatwara amafaranga angahe niba atari ibanga?

Twahirwa : Uyu mushinga ni munini kubyo uteganya kugeraho ariko ubushobozi uzatwara bukaba buke, kuko  impamvu, mu mwaka wa mbere niho hazagurwa bya bikoresho gusa, ariko imyaka izakurikiraho hazakoreshwa bya bikoresho kandi bikoreshwe muri Kaminuza 4.

I.N: Uyu mushinga  urateganya ko wazamara igihe kingana gute?

Twahirwa : Imyaka itanu.

I.N: Igihe mwihaye nikirangira ko amashuri y’itangazamakuru azaba agikomeje abazakurikiraho bizagenda gute?

Twahirwa : Ni ikibazo cyiza, buriya muri uwo mwaka wanyuma hazabaho isesengura rusange, ryazavamo gusuzuma ahazaza hagati y’abaterankunga, ubuyobozi bw’umushinga  n’ubuyobozi bw’izo Kaminuza. Niba umushinga  uzaba warahuguye abakozi b’izo Kaminuza, ukaba warerekanye ibikoresho byiza n’uburyo bwo kubicunga. Kaminuza zishobora kwicara ku bw’akamaro zabonye, zo ubwazo zigatanga inkunga, ariko ibyiza reka tubiharire izo nzego zizakora igikwiye gusa  nta gusubira inyuma.

Gusa umushinga nta bwo uzavanaho inshingano z’amashuri zisanzwe.

I.N: Abafatanyabikorwa b’uyu mushinga  ni bande urabasaba iki?

Twahirwa: Abafatanyabikorwa ba mbere ni abarimu, ubuyobozi bw’ayo mashuri yigisha itangazamakuru, aba kabiri ni abanyamakuru n’abakora muri uyu umwuga.  Ngira ngo nsobanuye uruhare rwabo hano, ibyo byuma byanyu bifata amajwi n’amashusho, umuriro washiramo. Gusa dukeneye ubufasha bwabo kandi buhoraho.

Urugero ruto nko ku banyamakuru, bariya banyeshuri ni barumuna bacu, abandi ni abana bacu, kandi mufite ubumenyi bwiyongereyeho  uburambe mu kazi, urumva ko icyo gutanga gihari , igihugu cyacu nikigira itangazamakuru ry’umwuga bizatanga umusaruro mwiza.

I.N: Mu gusoza ni ubuhe butumwa watanga?

Twahirwa: Icyo nakongeraho  hano abanyeshuri nibabona ubumenyi buhagije, si ngombwa kwirirwa yandika asaba akazi. Icyo  tuzasiga twizeye ni uko buri munyeshuri azaba azi ubwe gufungura imiyoboro yo gutambutsa amakuru nka  « Youtube » yerekwe uko abicunga, abibyaza amafaranga, aganire na bamwe mu babikora kugira ngo amwigireho.

Nsoza rero, nagira nti harakabaho u Rwanda, harakabaho Abanyarwanda n’ubuyobozi bwiza. Ndakangurira n’abandi gutekereza no gushaka uburyo burambye bunahoraho bwo guteza imbere za « Media Clubs » mu mashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye kugira ngo abafite impano batazimira.

Twese dufatanye twubake itangazamakuru ry’umwuga ribereye u Rwanda.

TANGA IGITECYEREZO

  • Eugene Kanamaugire
    May 31, 2022 at 11:38 am Musubize

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