Impamvu u Rwanda na Nigeria byasinye Amasezerano y’Artemis ya NASA
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Impamvu u Rwanda na Nigeria byasinye Amasezerano y’Artemis ya NASA

NTAWITONDA JEAN CLAUDE

December 26, 2022

U Rwanda na Nigeria byabaye ibihugu bya mbere by’Afurika byashyize umukono ku masezerano y’Artemis amaze gusinywa n’ibihugu 23 byashyizeho amabwiriza  arebana no kubyaza umusaruro isanzure n’iterambere ry’ubukungu rishingiye ku yindi mibumbe.

Nubwo kugira uruhare muri gahunda yiswe iy’Artemis bidasaba gusa kuba waramaze gushyira umukono kuri ayo masezerano, abayobozi b’Ikigo cya LetaZunze ubumwe z’Amerika gishinzwe ubumenyi bw’isanzure (NASA) bemeza ko u Rwanda na Nigeria byabonye amahirwe yo kuba abafatanyabikorwa mu gusubiza abahanga mu kwezi ndetse no ku mubumbe wa mars bitarenze mu 2025.

Mu gihe ibyo bihugu byombi bifite ibigo byihariye bikurikirana ibirebana n’isanzure, byombi ntibirubaka izina rikomeye mu bijyanye no kubyaza umusaruro amahirwe aboneka mu isanzure no ku yindi mibumbe nk’uko bitangazwa n’ikinyamakuru The Hill.

Ikigo Aerospace Security gitangaza ko Nigeria yashinze Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ubushakashatsi mu Isanzure n’Iterambere (NASRDA) mu mwaka wa 1999. NASRDA yohereje ibyogajuru byinshi mu kirere, birimo n’icya mbere cyakozwe n’abahanga mu by’isanzure bo mu bihugu by’Afurika, cyitwa NigeriaSat-X.

Bivugwa ko NASRDA itageze ku ntego zimwe na zimwe yihaye zirimo gutoza umuturage wa Nigeria akavamo impuguke mu by’isanzure, no kubaka ibikorwa remezo bifasha mu kugeza abantu ku kwezi no ku yindi mibumbe.

Uyu munsi NASRDA ifite inshingano zijyanye n’ibyo Nigeria ikeneye birimo intego yo gushyiraho gahunda yo kwifashisha ubumenyi bw’isanzure mu kuzahura iterambere ry’abaturage binyuze mu ishoramari rihagije rishyirwa mu burezi bwimakaza  siyansi, ikoranabuhanga, ubwenjenyeri n’imibare (STEM)

Nigeria ifite gahunda yo gukoresha iryo koranabuhanga rigezweho mu guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, kunoza ubuhinzi, kubaka umutekano uhamye no kurwanya Boko Haram, no guhangana n’ubucuruzi bwa magendu mu Kigobe cya Guinea.

Ikigo gishinzwe iby’isanzure mu Rwanda na cyo cyashinzwe mu mwaka wa 2020, kigamije kugenzura no guhuza ibikorwa byose bikorerwa mu isanzure mu Gihugu ari na ko hahangwa ikirere cyoroshya iterambere ry’inganda no kwihangira imirimo byoroshya guhanga udushya dukenewe mu ruhando mpuzamahanga no ku isoko ry’imbere mu Gihugu. 

Kugeza ubu u Rwanda rumaze kohereza mu isanzure icyogajuru kimwe cyitwa RwaSat-1 ku bufatanye n’u Buyapani, ndetse biteganyijwe ko rushobora gusinyana amasezrano nk’ayo na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu (UAE) mu bihe biri imbere.

U Rwanda rurateganya kandi kohereza ibindi byogajuru byinshi mu isanzure bitarenze mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2023. Kimwe na Nigeria, gahunda y’u Rwanda mu birebana n’isanzure igamije koroshya iterambere ry’Igihugu mu bijyanye n’imibereho myiza n’ubukungu.

Impuguke mu bumenyi bw’isanzure zemeza ko nyuma yo gushyira umukono ku masezerano y’Artemis, ibihugu byombi byahise bijya mu ruhando rw’ibihugu bikurura ishoramari rirebana n’Isanzure kurusha ibindi.

Bivuze ko ibyo bihugu bifite amahirwe angana n’aya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, u Bufaransa, u Buyapani n’ibindi bihugu 20 byamaze kwemezwa no gushyira umukono kuri ayo masezerano.

U Rwanda na Nigeria ni byo bihugu by’Afurika rukumbi byagaragaje ko bitajenjekeye urugendo rwo kubyaza umusaruro isanzure n’indi mibumbe mu nyungu z’abatuye Isi, ndetse no kugira uruhare mu kubyaza umusaruro ukwezi, umubumbe wa mars n’indi itandukanye.

Kuri ubu u Rwanda na Nigeria bishobora gutanga umusanzu wabyo muri gahunda y’Artemis no mu gukora ibyogajuru bimeze nk’isanduku (CubeSats) birimo ibikoresho byifashishwa mu butumwa bunyuranye mu isannzure

Gahunda ya mbere y’Astemis (Artemis I) yohereje mu isanzure CubeSats nyinshi zirimo na zimwe zitabashije kugera neza mu isanzure, ariko zose zitanga amakuru akenewe mu muryango itandukanye irimo na kaminuza ndetse n’ibindi bikorwa byo ku isanzure.

Ubutumwa bwa CubeSat buvugwaho kuba bworoheje ku buryo bushobora no gufasha ibigo by’u Rwanda na Nigeria bishinzwe isanzure, ku buryo abanyeshuri ba kaminuza zo muri ibyo bihugu bagira uruhare mu kubaka no kohereza mu isanzure bimwe mu byogajuru mbere y’uko hatangira gahunda y’Artemis II izatangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu 2024 cyangwa mu 2025.

Mu gihe Nigeria n’u Rwanda birimo kubaka ubukungu bushingiye ku isanzure, kuri ubu byemerewe kugira uruhare rusesuye muri gahunda z’Artemis, aho Abahanga mu by’Isanzure bo muri Afurika bazaba intangarugero ku bindi bihugu bitarasinya ku masezerano ku buryo na byo bizagira ubwo bushake.

Ikigo NASA gifite gahunda yo kwagura amasezerano y’Artemis akagera ku bihugu byinshi bitandukanye. Biteganyijwe ko u Burusiya n’u Bushinwa bishobora kunenga ayo masezerano ko agamije ukwikubira kw’Amerika nubwo amabwiriza agenga ayo masezerano ateganya ko nta gihugu na kimwe gihejwe.

Impuguke mu bya Politiki zivuga kandi ko u Bushinwa busanzwe bufite uburyo bwabo bwihariye bwo kubyaza umusaruro amahirwe agaragara mu isanzure, bushobora guhungabanywa n’ukwinjira k’u Rwanda na Nigeria muri ayo masezerano, cyane ko ibyo bihugu bisanzwe ari abafatanyabikorwa babyo.

Muri iki kinyejana, Afurika ni yo ntego ya mbere y’u Bushinwa mu kwagura ububanyi n’amahanga bushingiye ku bukungu binyuze mu kubaka ibikorwa remezo no gutanga inyungu zitandukanye. Ibihugu bishyize umukono ku masezerano y’Artemis bikanatanga umusanzu wabyo, bivugwa ko bizagorana ko bishobora kugwa mu butware bw’u Bushinwa burundu.

U Budage n’u Buhinde ni ibihugu bimaze kubaka izina rihambaye mu isanzure bitarashyira umukono kuri ayo masezerano, ariko mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere bizashishikazwa cyane no kuyasinya kuko abiha amahirwe yo gutanga umusanzu wabyo mu mishinga ikomeye mu mateka izaba ikozwe hatabanje kuba intambara.

Biteganyijwe ko gusubira ku kwezi no kuri Mars bizagirira umumaro ukomeye cyane buri gihugu cyose kizatanga umusanzu wacyo muri uwo mushinga.

TANGA IGITECYEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

IZINDI NKURU WASOMA